There has been a lot written about ‘Hybrid’ yachts, often with some hype about being eco-friendly, having green credentials, etc., but with very little information of substance to support the claims.
Hybrid, in the context of motor yachts, just means there is more than one system capable of providing propulsion and/or electrical power.
Apart from a couple of innovative examples, all these systems rely on burning diesel fuel (MGO/MDO) as the primary energy source. This is sometimes glossed over where batteries are concerned.
Hybrid motor yachts and tenders have also been compared to Hybrid vehicles, but completely ignore the fact that they generate power from coasting or braking to increase their efficiency – something not available to yachts.
So, in this piece, I take a more in-depth look at Hybrid systems in an effort to provide some much-needed clarity on their benefits. I also question whether it is a transitional technology, or if it will be here for the longer term?
No Standard Operation
When it comes to superyachts and their operation, this is true. It’s what makes optimising the propulsion and electrical package challenging.
Main engines (ME) must be able to deal with variable speeds e.g. manoeuvring, cruising, maximum speed.
Generators (GEN) must handle variable loads and the ‘cycling’ of equipment that is dependent on the operational mode e.g. underway, guest-on, guest-off, in port or at anchor.
Given the variability of speed and load it can be difficult to size the main engines and generators for their best performance. This matters, because running engines at optimal load increases efficiency, reduces fuel consumption and emissions such as CO2; this is where ‘Hybrid’ can help…but, more on that later!
A Little History
Traditionally, superyachts used diesel main engines to provide propulsion power, and diesel generators to provide the electrical power for auxiliary and hotel loads – independent systems.
Fig 1. Traditional – ME to drive the propellors and GEN’s that power the hotel and auxiliary loads.
Although Diesel Electric has been used in shipping for many years it was not until the launch of M/Y Limitless in 1997 that it started to receive attention in the superyacht industry. And, in 2005 we saw the launch of M/Y ICE a Diesel Electric yacht that also used Azipods – interestingly both were built by Lurssen.
The story goes that many shipyards were reluctant to adopt Diesel Electric due to the complexity, engineering risks and the associated costs of developing a new platform – concerns that still apply to any new technology. However, their benefits, and the demands from yacht owners and their technical team saw a steady increase in use – especially on the larger yachts.
Fig 2. Diesel Electric – GEN’s provide electrical power for propulsion through Permanent Electric Motors (PEM’s) and the hotel and auxiliary loads.
Diesel Electric has many benefits. Having a number of generators (can be different sizes) that can be brought on-line for propulsion, and the hotel and auxiliary loads, meant the engines could run at optimal loads with better efficiency. It also provided a high degree of redundancy, greater flexibility in the technical layout – no longer limited by shaft lines – and, reduced noise and vibration which improved comfort.
You could say Hybrid is a mix of ‘Traditional’ and ‘Diesel Electric’ systems, combined with batteries (BAT) and sophisticated Power Management System (PMS) to optimise engine performance and efficiency.
The diagram below is an example of a Hybrid system.
Fig 3. ‘Hybrid’ Arrangement
Propulsion can be driven by ME’s, PEM’s or both (Boost), electrical energy can be generated from the ME and/or GEN’s and stored in batteries. The PMS takes care of managing the loads for propulsion, hotel and auxiliary systems.
The 83m Feadship, M/Y Savannah, delivered in 2015, is often cited as the first Hybrid motor yacht; though, just like Diesel Electric, it was not new to shipping. Since then we have seen am increase in its use across a variety of different sized motor yachts.
As mentioned, although diesel fuel is the primary energy source, there are some examples of innovative Hybrid motor yachts that use ‘Alternative Energy’. These include Artifact that uses solar, and the recently announced Lurssen project that will use Methanol in the energy mix.
No doubt the use of alternative energy will increase over time as the industry strives to reduce its carbon footprint.
It’s All About Efficiency
There are different types of marine diesel engines, two-stroke, four-stroke, slow speed, medium speed and high speed, each with their own performance characteristics. We use four-stroke high speed diesels on superyachts for both main engines and generators.
Whilst diesel engines are the most efficient internal combustion engines (ICE) at approx. 45% energy out vs. energy in, there are challenges to improve this – we may be close to the max with modern engine designs and materials.
What may not be so obvious, is that diesel engines have an optimal load; a point where the power generated requires the least amount of fuel. For many marine diesels this is at or near the Max Continuous Load and can be found from a table or graph of Load (kWh) vs. Specific Fuel Oil Consumption (g/kWh) in the engines test/technical file.
The example below is the SOFC for fixed speed 340 kW generator.
Fig 4. SOFC for 340kW GEN
The lowest fuel consumption 205 g/kWh is at 100% load. As the load decreases fuel consumption increases at a shallow and near linear slope until about 40% load, where it starts to rise exponentially.
The effect of running at or near optimal load on fuel consumption can be seen in the below.
Fig 5. Using one GEN at 80% load instead of two at 40% load can reduce the fuel consumption by approx. 9%.
Providing the generators are sized correctly it is unlikely they would run at less than 40% load – a point to bear in mind when looking at fuel efficiency claims for ‘Hybrid’ systems as they may be based on the more extreme ends of the SOFC curve.
This is also relevant to main engines though because they are able to run at variable speed, the difference is less pronounced – one of the advantages of variable speed generators as fitted to Artifact.
In the example below of a 3600 kW main engine, the SOFC slope is shallow and near linear from 100% load down to 25% load, where it starts to rise exponentially. There is about a 5% difference in fuel consumption between 25% and 100% load – a much wider load range and lower fuel saving compared to the fixed speed generator.
Fig 6. SOFC for 3600 kW ME
Unless ME’s are significantly over-sized to eke out that extra 0.5 knot of top speed, the only times when running at less than 25% load would be whilst maneuvering and/or motoring at sub-optimal speeds – you can determine this by comparing power/speed graph with SOFC.
What About Batteries
Batteries are just one form of Energy Storage System (ESS) others include devices such as capacitors and flywheels but, they all need an external energy source to charge them e.g. generators, solar, shore power.
Batteries perform a number of functions in a Hybrid system.
Buffer and avoid start/stop of additional generator
Backup for running generators
Fewer generators needed online
Improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions
Reduce engine hours and maintenance
Instant power on demand
No startup delay
Each of the above helps to improve performance and efficiency of the yachts systems by keeping the engines operating at their optimal load, reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.
Batteries with sufficient capacity can also power propulsion and/or the hotel and auxiliary loads for short distances or time.
Engine Free Operation
Whilst it is clear that batteries are an integral part of a Hybrid system – though not essential as I have sailed on a Hybrid yacht without batteries – whether they offer significant benefit when used for ‘Engine Free’ operation is another matter.
Engine Free, often described as ‘silent’ or ‘zero emissions’ mode, is perhaps a little more nuanced than might be suggested.
One reality is that emissions are not really reduced or prevented, they are merely displaced by time and location and do nothing for the overall CO2 footprint of the yacht – you still need to burn diesel fuel to generate the electrical energy stored in the batteries.
When it comes to noise, I also found that on larger yachts that with proper isolation, sound insulation and dry stack exhausts, it was difficult to tell if a generator was running in the guest areas. It was often the air-conditioning that emitted the most obvious noise and shutting down the a/c often resulted in an eerie silence, even with generators running.
With the above and, given the known issues with Li-ion batteries, from their production and imbedded emissions, to safety, life-cycle and recycling, I think the use for Engine Free operation needs to be carefully assessed. The current battery technology does not provide sufficient capacity for any reasonable level of autonomy without significantly impacting the interior space and weight.
In addition, if installing large battery banks for Engine Free running, you may need to upsize the generators as the total amount of energy required is not diminished, it is just generated over a shorter period of time. You may also lose some efficiency gains due to the power required to keep the battery banks at optimum temperature.
A Hybrid Solution
The following example provides flexible modes of operation.
Fig 7. Fully Integrated Solution
A. Stationary – Hybrid GEN/BAT for electrical loads
B. Low Speed – Propulsion and electrical loads from Hybrid GEN/BAT
C. Cruise – Mechanical propulsion, Hybrid GEN/BAT electrical loads
D. Performance (Boost) – Combined mechanical and electrical propulsion/loads from Hybrid GEN/BAT
The main purpose of these modes provides operational flexibility to ensure the optimal engine load, performance and efficiency.
Fuel Saving and CO2 Reductions
Whilst we now know fuel can be saved by running diesel engines at optimal loads, the more difficult question to answer is; by how much?
One DNV study ‘Electrical Energy Storage For Ships, published in 2020’ suggested that the ‘fuel saving potential’ for yachts was around 5 – 10%. Engine manufacturers and yacht builders tend to be a little more “optimistic” with the potential savings and benefits often using emotive words to describe their benefits.
Where you measure the ‘delta’ from matters, as using the extremes will result in significant differences in SOFC, but may not reflect the real-World use – the time the engines spend at least efficient load may have very limited effect on overall consumption.
It is important not to focus on the headline figure, but to evaluate the potential savings across a range of speed and load scenarios that are expected with the yachts use. The engines technical files will help identify the real savings.
Is It Worth It
The evidence confirms that a well-designed ‘Hybrid’ system can have a positive impact today in terms of more efficient yachts and reduced fuel consumption. According to the IMO fuel coefficient, every ton of MGO/MDO emits 3.206 tCO2. So, on that metric alone, the answer would have to be yes.
Unfortunately a ‘Hybrid’ yacht will be more expensive which no doubt affects more widespread use. When viewed purely on a cost/benefit basis, it may be hard to justify the extra cost against the potential fuel savings, and reduced operational costs due lower engine hours and extended maintenance intervals. Depending on use, the break even point may be a many years away and lay outside the envisaged ownership timescale. So as long as it’s an ‘option’ from builders cost will probably trump environment.
In the evaluation process, it worth considering the cost of diesel fuel may increase in the future due to carbon tax, and renewable fuels such as HVO (drop-in diesel) will be significantly more expensive. So, the additional cost today, may be sound investment for the future?
Finally, whatever energy is used in the future, it will likely be less energy dense than diesel fuel, and certainly more expensive. This means power management and efficiency will become even more critical and Hybrid technology will remain a fundamental component, especially in mixed energy solutions.
There have been several concepts, and a good many articles and discussions relating to the use of solar panels on superyachts. And, as a zero-emissions energy source, this would seem to be an ideal technology to reduce or replace a yachts reliance on fossil fuels. You could have large arrays of panels on the superstructure or build them into sails to provide all the yachts energy…but could you?
Like many alternative energy solutions, away from the sensational headlines, it’s only when you look at the details do you begin to understand whether they are practical solutions or not.
In this piece I will shed some light on the use of solar panels on superyachts.
Using a 65m yacht as an example, I will assess the energy required from generators for a 24 hour period and the area of solar panels that would be required to generate this energy.
Sunlight As Energy
Studies suggest that the amount of sunlight that strikes the earth surface in 1.5 hours is sufficient to handle the Worlds entire energy consumption for 12 months. It is important to understand that although this solar radiation bathes the entire World it is dependent on time, date and location.
This is the monthly variation due to the sun’s declination, but there is also the diurnal variation due to the elevation of the sun from sunrise to sunset, as shown below.
Of note, the total radiation (Global) is based on Direct and Diffused radiation e.g. reflected.
Taking the monthly figures, the average daily amount of energy is therefore:-
July 6.6 kWh/m2
January 1.56 kWh/m2
Much like a stabilised VSAT or TV antenna depends on pointing directly at the satellite for the best signal, the same is true for solar radiation; the highest levels of insolation are when the sun’s rays are perpendicular to the plane – hence the improvement in solar cell performance with systems that track the sun both in azimuth and elevation.
For those projects that have suggested using solar panels on sails, the angle of the sails relative to the sun’s rays will impact heavily on the energy generated. Underway, the wind is unlikely to allow for the most optimum angle and, at anchor if windy, you would need a method of ‘stalling’ the sails to achieve the best angle.
Solar Panel Efficiency
But I have seen powerful solar panels rated at 500-550Wp!
This is true they are available, but panels of that power are approx. 2.2m2 and power rating is the peak performance based on the Standard Test Condition (STC).
The STC is based on horizontal solar radiation of 1000W/m2 at an internal cell temperature of 25°C. Efficiency is measured by how much of the solar radiation is converted into electrical power and currently the best panels have an efficiency rating of 21%.
This means under STC conditions the best 1m2 panel would produce 210Wp but, of course, as can be seen from the graphs above, solar radiation is not constant. And, along with seasonal and diurnal variation, a solar panel is also affected by angle of incidence and other factors that can reduce efficiency, such as system losses, contamination on the surface and temperature.
Air temperature has a major effect on the cell temperature, and higher or lower cell temperature will either reduce or increase the power output by a specific amount for every degree above or below 25°C (STC). This is known as the power temperature coefficient (PTC) which is measured in %/°C.
As an example, monocrystalline panels have an average PTC of -0.38% /°C, while polycrystalline panels are slightly higher at -0.40% /°C.
In general, cell temperatures run approx. 25°C above the ambient temperature. So, on a summer’s day with air temperature of 30°C you could see an approx. 11% reduction in efficiency of a Monocrystalline panel.
Daily Solar Energy Example
Knowing the efficiency of a solar panel enables us to do some basic calculations on daily energy produced from a 1m2 solar panel in July and January for Monaco.
Average daily solar radiation is 6.6kWh/m2
Total energy produced 1.39kWh/m2 per day
Average daily solar radiation is 1.56kWh/m2
Total energy produced 0.33kWh/m2 per day
How Much Energy is Required?
Taking a 65m yacht fitted with 200kW generators and, assuming with ‘guests-on’ will require around 4500kWh/day for the non-propulsion such as air-conditioning, stabilisers, water-makers, refrigeration, galley, laundry, water heaters, av/it., etc. This will be less ‘guest-off’ with good power management practices employed by the crew.
On this yacht the flat surfaces available for solar panels is approx. 407m2.
From the above, in Monaco in July, if you wanted to generate the energy from solar panels alone you would need approx. 3,240m2 of panels – approx. 8 x available area.
In addition, you would need and a battery bank of approx. 2.8MWh (only 80% useable due to battery cycling) for the hours when the sun is not shining.
This is assuming maximum efficiency and does not include any de-rating due to shade, cloud, rain, contamination on the panel surface or high air temperature, all of which impact efficiency and final energy generated.
And, in January…well you can work that out!
The Potential of Solar Panels
As can been seen given the variables that effect energy produced and the large surface area required, it would not be a practical solution to replace diesel generators with solar panels – not for large yachts anyway. However, they could be used as a part of a hybrid solution to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 and other exhaust gas emissions.
With the above example 407m2 x 1.39kWh/m2 = 565kWh or approx. 3 hours of generator use. This is a useful saving especially if combined with batteries and power management systems that can use that energy to help with generator efficiency. But, don’t forget, season and location will have a large effect on this number.
The challenge on any superyacht will be finding sufficient flat surfaces and the issue of heat and efficiency. New panel technologies are in development with higher efficiencies, possibly up to 50% and this will help the adoption of solar panels in the energy mix but, by themselves, do not offer a replacement of fossil fuels on superyachts.
I must admit to a bit of plagiarism here as the title, in part, comes from the World Maritime University (WMU) Report1 into the hours of work and rest (HOWR) in the shipping industry – link at the bottom. When I saw the title, read, then reflected on its contents, it became clear there were parallels with the superyacht industry.
That being said, it is important to recognise that in the superyacht industry the issues surrounding misrepresentation of HOWR are generally limited to the peak periods; those times when guests are onboard when, due to a combination of high demands and insufficient crew. To successfully navigate the obligations and intent of the legislation it is important to fully understand the regulations. The alternative is creative application of HOWR – something I am sure that most yacht captains and crew will have experienced.
In my early days on yachts, working long hours to deliver the guest experience was the norm and just part of yachting. “Harden-up” was often the refrain when someone spoke out on fatigue. It was like the measure of a job well done and validation that yachting was for you. Hours of work and fatigue were given very little attention and remained undocumented; unless you were crew you had no idea of the extent of the problem. Over subsequent years, regulations such as ISM and MLC were introduced to improve vessel safety and pollution prevention and the health and welfare of crew – less about yachting and about preventing the abuse of crew that was prevalent in some sectors of the shipping industry.
Unfortunately, as the WHU report suggests, despite the regulations and a greater appreciation of fatigue and its consequences, there is still a culture where work hours are, either under reported or adjusted to facilitate compliance. There are many reasons given, many of which are analogous to the superyacht industry:
Legacy – it’s part of the ‘can do’ attitude that is prevalent within yachting; the desire to deliver the best experience for the owner or guests.
Manning – having an appropriate manning level to meet the diverse demands of the operation; not just ‘minimum safe manning’ which is often the metric.
Contemporary Yacht Operations – yachting has evolved and so have the demands on crew, not only from owners who expect greater levels of service and experience, but also from the administrative burden that is a consequence of both regulation and management company reporting systems. Manning has failed to keep pace with this and something OnlyCaptains alluded to in this piece – Manning A More Considered Approach Required
Cost – crew are one of the highest costs of yacht ownership and so it is understandable that advisors and yacht owners are driven to reduce manning.
Financial Incentive – charter tips or bonus.
Employment Security – whether it be the Captain responsible for the yacht compliance, or an individual crew member not ‘towing the line’ there are concerns about the effect accurate reporting may have on employment prospects.
Management Pressure – either directly or indirectly they send signals that encourage the misrepresentation of HOWR.
Stakeholder Distance – the physical and psychological distance between the various shore-based stakeholders and the operational crew, means there is often a limited understanding of the work that crew do and what it takes to deliver an exceptional yachting experience, day after day.
Lack of Effective Controls – as proven, it is relatively easy to under report or adjust HOWR, even on some electronic systems, to ensure compliance. The fact that these are not identified by internal audits, Flag or PSC suggests the current inspection and enforcement mechanisms are not fit for purpose.
Also, in yachting due to the cyclical nature of demands ‘guest on vs. guest off’ there is also an attitude of:
What’s the big deal, the crew get plenty of time to rest when we are not onboard.
The reality is often very different; there is still plenty of work to be done that is critical to maintain and protect the value of the asset, safety considerations, and to ensure the yacht and crew are ready for the next visit.
Rest and Fatigue
This leads onto ‘Compensatory Rest’ as allowed by MLC, to mitigate or justify non-compliance; often the rule rather than the exception. Unfortunately, this is not always practical due to a yachts program e.g. short turnaround for next guests (back-to-back guests/charters) repositioning in rough sea, etc. And, unless the compensatory rest is both, timely and adequate, it will not prevent fatigue and its consequences.
There are numerous studies on fatigue; searching ‘fatigue and its effect on performance and safety’ in Google (other browsers are available!) produced 1.5 million hits – I would hazard a guess that none of the results would praise its health and performance benefits!
It is recognised there are three types of fatigue:
Transient fatigue this is acute fatigue as a result of sleep restriction or extended hours awake within 1 or 2 days
Cumulative or chronic fatigue brought on by repeated mild sleep restriction or extended hours awake across a series of days.
Circadian fatigue refers to the reduced performance during night-time hours, particularly during an individual’s “window of circadian low” (WOCL) -typically between 2:00 a.m. and 05:59 a.m.
Research has also shown that the accumulation of sleep deficit e.g. having an hour less of sleep for several consecutive days, needs a series of days with more-than-usual sleep for a person to fully recover from cumulative fatigue.
This suggests that, very quickly into a busy guest period, crew may already be affected by fatigue; their cognitive ability impaired, decision making and judgement clouded, and performance impacted. Many studies compare fatigue to the effects of alcohol consumption, the last thing anyone would want would be crew behaving as drunks due only to sleep deprivation.
Adding to the problem is that many crew cabins are cramped, poorly designed, and suffer from light and noise pollution, these factors, along with the yachts motion, even at anchor, can all affect the quality of sleep – another area worth consideration?
The shipping industry is aware of fatigue and has contributed to the canon of research on the subject, these include The SEAFARER FATIGUE: THE CARDIFF RESEARCH PROGRAMME, MCA MGN 505(M) and IMO GUIDELINES ON FATIGUE (MSC.1Circ.1598) and are all well worth reading.
Interestingly, in 2006 when the Cardiff Research Study was published, one conclusion was:
This study shows the current method for recording and auditing working hours is not effective and should therefore be reviewed.
Seems not much has changed.
As I discovered, honest reporting of HOWR comes with a cost, unless you have a supportive management company and yacht owner, so I fully appreciate why some captains might be reluctant. However, unless we report HOWR accurately we will remain part of the problem and there will be no incentive to change.
If you always operate at max, like an engine constantly run in the red zone, something will break sooner rather than later!
Ultimately the reason why there may be a need to under report or adjust of HOWR is that, in many cases, there is insufficient crew for guest periods. And, this is after all when a yacht owner, their family and friends or charter guests get to experience the enjoyment of yachting.
A Contempoarary Problem
Far from this being restricted to older yachts, this remains a contemporary issue, with some recent prominent examples shown not to have enough crew to deliver consistently the full range and standard of services demanded by yacht owners and charterer guests – this does beg the question; who is advising the owners and how did they assess the manning levels?
In response, I like to reflect on a comment from a respected designer Carlo Nuvolari, of Nuvolari Lenard, when he stated in an interview in Boat International – Nuvolari Lenard discuss the problem with yacht design 18 November 2015 by Stewart Campbell:
A Lot – Not All, But A Lot – Of Our Colleagues Don’t Go On Boats. I Can’t Understand It.
Perhaps ‘a bittongue in cheek here’ a solution would be for every designer or advisor, to spend at least one season working on a busy yacht in all departments, before they are allowed anywhere near a prospective yacht owner and/or its operation…just a thought!
And, whilst we can address the problem with more careful consideration of manning on new-builds, clearly, we cannot re-build each yacht and the demands will not decrease…so what can be done?
Searching for A pathway
Apart from accurate reporting, Captains will need to look at every aspect of their operation and work schedules to find efficiencies and/or time saving solutions e.g. use of a standing shore team that speeds up turnarounds. Yacht management working with their captains to improve SMS and operational reporting, using technology to make the systems more user friendly and efficient. And, where practicable, directing much of the administration back to shore management, freeing Captains and crew to be the operators, focused on ensuring the yacht owners, their guests and charterers are the priority.
Final thought. Would you fly on a long-haul flight if the captain (eyes darkened by fatigue) was trying to finish the plane’s budget, next maintenance schedule, organise his parking at the next airport and was on the phone interviewing a cabin attendant as you boarded? I think the answer is obvious, so why do we run our yachts this way?
Following our last post and feedback, we take a deeper look at rotation. We believe the benefits for crew are well understood, so in this piece we focus mainly on how rotation can improve yacht ownership and whether the benefits outweigh any additional costs involved?
With traditional leave arrangements, crew normally take their accrued leave at the end of a contract if a seasonal job or, when a yachts program allows e.g. at the end of the season, during a refit or crossing, or the off-season lay-up period. This approach means crew may work for prolonged periods before a break and, planning for their leave and/or training required for career progression, is very difficult.
Although a yacht can be admired for its aesthetic beauty and technical excellence, ultimately it is the professional crew who are responsible for ensuring the yacht delivers on the dreams and aspirations of an owner. Employing and retaining the very best crew is, without doubt, fundamental to success. And, as the fleet grows and yachts get bigger, the competition for quality crew will only increase; to meet this challenge terms of employment will need to evolve and rotation will become an ever more important consideration for many.
So What is Rotation?
I think the simplest explanation is job-sharing, where, most commonly, two crew share the same job and alternate their time onboard and on leave. This is normally the situation with the most senior crew with work/leave ratios such as 2:2 or 3:3 and other crew on ratios such as 5:1 or 3.1.
Although there may be different variations/ratios, not all crew have to be on the same terms, the general principle is that the yacht is fully manned at all times and leave is properly scheduled – within accepted variances due to a yachts program.
With any job share, especially in positions of leadership and responsibility, one of the challenges is ensuring the two people sharing the job have mutual respect, similar ethics, behaviour and work standards. This dynamic is important as consistency is fundamental to the health of the team. Any major differences can lead to uncertainty and confusion amongst the crew and a breakdown in the team and performance – success, relies on identifying and employing the right crew.
Yacht Availability – Asset Optimisation
Large yachts are a significant investment, and one of the joys of yacht ownership is the freedom to use it without restriction. Therefore, outside of crossings or refit, any time a yacht is unavailable to a yacht owner or, for charter, would seem to be a poor return on the investment.
Even on one season yachts I have seen where the lack of crew has prevented an owner from using their yacht in winter, and there are some stunning days in the winter in the Med! This was frustrating for the owner and something that did not make sense given the investment involved, including the capital costs and operational expenditure.
Rotation ensures that it is the yacht owner who determines when to use the yacht and is not restricted due to crew leave, or quality diminished by use of temporary crew. Lack of crew due to leave commitments would no longer be a reason to curtail use or compromise on safe manning in port.
Temporary crew is an option for replacing crew on leave and keeping the yacht available to the owner, though this is not normally the most successful strategy as recruitment is often at short notice and choice may be limited.
Further, there is no guarantee they will perform, have the same professional standards, gel with the crew and/or yacht owner and family. The training and supervision they will require and, repeated every time a temp is used, is a drain on crew resources creating inefficiencies in the team’s performance and the yachts operation. This can have a negative impact on the quality of service, levels of safety, standards of maintenance and the yacht owner’s experience.
Employing temporary crew has repeating costs such as agency fees, salary, uniform and travel and these can be used to offset the additional cost of permanent crew required for rotation.
It is widely accepted that long periods onboard without a suitable break can lead to fatigue and burnout, especially on busy yachts, and the uncertainty in leave planning and difficulty in having a normal life off the yacht can affect the welfare and well-being of crew. All these are contributing factors to the high turnover of crew that is so often complained about in our industry.
The senior crew are even more exposed to these stresses due to the pressures of their roles. These are the mature/older more experienced crew that others look to for leadership, training and motivation – they are the foundation on which the long-term success of the yacht is built. Many will have reached a point their career and/or life where they may have a family or, in a relationship, and are interested in building a fulfilling life away from the yacht.
Junior crew tend to have different priorities, as alluded to in Part I, so whilst extended leave is not so important, a reasonable amount of leave and having the ability to plan for their time off is still a key influence.
Rotation also provides opportunities for advancement and helps remove another oft cited reason for leaving. For example, it may allow a chief officer to step up to rotational captain, or a 2nd stewardess to become rotational chief stewardess. It adds to motivation and further helps retain the skills and knowledge built-up through mentoring and their time served onboard.
Although yacht owners may be frustrated by the constant churn of crew, they may not fully appreciate the hard and soft costs involved. The hard costs include such things as recruitment fees, employment setup costs, uniform, training, etc. and easiest to explain. The soft costs, although harder to put a monetary value on, are also important considerations. Arguably, the biggest cost to crew turnover is the loss of knowledge which could be technical, operational or, even personal to the yacht owner and family. There is also the disruption to the team and operation, and the time and effort required to train and supervise new crew on their journey to becoming an integral part of the team. And, all of these could affect a yacht owners enjoyment; something you cannot put a value on!
It’s also difficult to appreciate the importance a yacht owner places on seeing familiar faces amongst the crew; it helps them relax, and gives them comfort in the knowledge that the crew understand their needs and will make their stay flow seamlessly. I have heard familiarity being used as a reason against rotation due to the additional crew, but this should not be a major concern as it doesn’t take long for those crew to be a familiar sight – they just won’t all be onboard at the same time!
Rotation does not completely eliminate crew turnover as there will always be influences outside the control of the yacht but, by incentivising crew through better leave and improved employment prospects, a yacht owner can remove some of the key reasons for leaving.
Yes, But Rotation Is Expensive!
This is often, understandingly, the refrain from yacht owners and rightly so, as the payroll can be between 25% – 40% of the operating budget, and it is frequently the captain who must explain how increasing these costs can be of benefit a yacht owner.
Within any proposal, the crew must also buy-in to the idea and understand that a trade-off may be required on their part. It would seem obvious to anyone that if you work less then you should be paid less? Unfortunately, crew do not always see it this way and some expect to work significantly less days whilst still earning the same money – this stance is often where the idea never even gets off the ground. That being said, there are examples of very generous salaries combined with rotation – there is no standard in yachting!
Once an owner recognises the benefits it is clearly easier to implement prior to employment of the crew, such as during a new-build or before purchase. Changing an operational yacht to a rotational structure is a little more challenging due to the uplift in costs, and any salary negotiations that may be required.
The examples below show how changing annual leave allowances affects the number of days worked per year.
90 days leave per year, plus one day off per week when onboard, effectively works 236 days per year. On 1:1 rotation they work 183 days per year (no day off per week). This is a reduction of 22%.
60 days leave per year, plus one day off per week when onboard, effectively works 261 days per year. On 1:1 rotation they work 183 days per year (no day off per week). This is a reduction of 30%.
38 days leave per year, plus one day off per week when onboard, effectively works 280 days per year. On 5:1 rotation, plus one day off per week when onboard, they work 261 days per year. This is a reduction of 7%.
An interesting point is that a full-time employee in the UK with statutory holiday, public holidays and weekends, effectively works 228 days per year.
The effective workdays is also the number used to calculate the daily pay rate. Using that figure you can see that to keep the rate the same would result in a salary reduction by the same percentage – as mentioned, this is something that crew may find difficult to accept, but may also make the salary uncompetitive.
As an exercise I developed a detailed spreadsheet that compares a ‘normal’ yacht with a crew complement of 19 onboard with average salaries, leave and travel costs, against the same yacht with a ‘rotation’ – the table below summarises the leave differences.
3:3 Ratio = 183 days
Chief Officer, 2nd Officer,
Purser, Chief Stewardess,
Head Chef, Sous Chef
3:3 Ratio = 183 days
5:1 ratio = 60 Days
3:3 Ratio = 183 days
3:3 Ratio = 183 days
TOTAL PAYROLL NUMBER
The junior crew are on a 5:1 rotation which, in general, may suit them better given their different priorities to the senior crew. There is still a good amount of time off to rest and recuperate and, importantly, an ability to plan their leave.
What this detailed examination highligthed is that rotation does not result in a doubling crew costs which, is often the assumption. In this particular case the increase in crew costs is between 8% – 24% depending whether salaries are adjusted for effective workdays, left at the original rates, or negotiated somewhere in-between.
It is clear that there are costs and benefits associated with rotation; although it is important to perform a detailed analysis of all the cost inputs, outputs and variances – this is a fundamental part of any justification. The benefits, apart from the financial savings that can be made through the reduction in temporary crew and crew turnover, are dependent on the value and importance ‘weighting factor’ that an yacht owner places on these, and whether, on balance, these outweigh the costs and add value to the quality of the ownership experience.
Finally, and worth considering; although rotation is not yet the norm, it is growing trend, especially for the larger yachts – although I have heard of its use on <500gt yachts as well – and more crew will be looking for this in the future – I think most yacht crew would agree that this is a positive change and demonstrates the industries progressive growth and evolving maturity.
As we have mentioned previously, OnlyCaptains are not offering prescriptive solutions, we simply present ideas and suggestions that may offer captains some useful ideas that they can use in their own command and act as a catalyst to further industry discussion – we hope you enjoyed this post and welcome any feedback.